Table of Contens :
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIATIION
- Indus Valley Civilisation is one of the four earliest civilisations of the world.
- According to radiocarbon dating, initiation of Indus Valley Civilisation can be dated around 2500-1750 BC:
- Systematic town planning was based on grid system; burnt bricks were used to construct houses; well-managed drainage system; fortified Citadel; highly urbanised; absence of iron implements.
- The Great Bath (Mohenjodaro) was used for religious bathing. There were changing rooms alongside.
- Six granaries in a row were found in the Citadel at Harappa.
- The towns were divided into 2 parts: the Upper Part or Citadel and the Lower Part. Harappans were ruled by a class of merchants, as no evidence of weapons are found there.
- Indus people sowed seeds in November and reaped their harvest in April, because of the danger of flood.
- Produced wheat, barley, rai, peas. seasum, rice and mustard
- Indus people were the first to produce cotton, which the Greeks termed as Sindon (derived from Sindh)
- Animals known were oxen, sheep, buffaloes, goats, pigs, elephants, dogs, cats, asses and camels.
- Well-knit external and internal trade. Barter system was prevalent.
- A very interesting feature of this civilisation was that iron was not known to the people.
- The Indus people used weighs and measurea in the multiple of 16.
- Harappans looked on Earth as fertility Goddess and phallic (lingam) and yoni worship was prevalent.
- Unicorn was the most worshipped animal. Many trees (pipal), animals (bull), birds (dove, pigeon) and stones too were worshipped though no evidence of temple has been found.
- Dead bodies were placed in North-South orientation.
- The Seal of Pashupati depicts elephant, tiger, rhinoceros and buffalo. Two deers appear at the feet of Pashupati.
- The Indus people believed in ghosts and evil forces evident by their use of amulets for protection against them. Fire altars are found at Lothal and Kalibangan.
- The greatest artistic creation of the Harappan culture were the seals, made of steatite. Harappan script is pictographic and hasn’t been deciphered yet.
- The script was written from right to left in the first line and left to right in the second line. This style is called Boustrophedon.
- Occupations practiced were spinning, weaving, boat-making, goldsmiths, making pottery and seal-making.
- The possible causes of the decline of the civilisation may be invasion of the Aryans, recurrent floods, social break-up of Harappans and earthquakes, etc.
- Boundaries North-Mandu (J&K); South-Daimabad (Maharashtra); East- Alamgirpur; West-Sutkagendor.
Indus Valley Sites
|Harappa||Situated on river Ravi in Montgomery district of Punjab (Pakistan). It was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1921-23. The Indus Civilisation is named after it as the Harappan Civilisation. Stone dancing Natraja and Cemetry-37 have been found here.|
|Mohenjodaro (Mound of Dead)||Situated on river Indus in Larkana district of Sind (Pak). It was excavated by RD Bannerji in 1922. The main building includes the Great Bath, the Great Granary, the Collegiate Building and the Assembly Hall. The dancing girl made of bronze has been found here. Pashupati Mahadeva/proto Shiva seal; fragment of woven cotton, etc are other findings.|
|Chanhudaro (Sindh, Pakistan)||On river Indus; discovered by NG Majumdar (1931); only Indus site without citadel; bronze figurines of bullock cart and ekkas; a small pot suggesting a an ink pot.|
|Lothal (Gujarat)||Discoverd by SR Rao(1954); situated on river Bhogava. A part of the town was divided into citadel and the lower town and dockyard. Evidence of rice has been found here.|
|kalibangan (meaning, Black Bangles) (Rajasthan)||Discoverd by BB Lal (1961); situated on Ghaggar river, a ploughed field; a wooden furrow; seven fire-altars; bones of camel; and evidence of two types of burials namely-circular grave and rectangular grave.|
|Dholavira||It was found on river Luni of Kachchh district in Gujarat discovered by JP Joshi (1967-68). It has a unique water management system; only site to be divided into 3 parts; largest Harappan inscription and a stadium.|
|Surkotada (Gujarat)||Discovered by JP Joshi in 1972; evidence of horse found; oval grave; pil burials and seemingly a port city.|
|anawali (Haryana)||On river Saraswati; discovered by RS Bisht (1973); evidence of both one pre-Harappan and Harappan culture; lacked systematic drainage system et evidence of goodquality barley.|
|Rakhigarhi (Haryana)||Largest Indus valley site.|