general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Medieval India | Later Mughals Marathas

Table of Content :
general knowledge 2023 arihant | Indian History | Medieval India | Later Mughals Marathas


  • Bahadur Shah I (1707-12) Original, name was Muazzam; Title-Shah Alam I.
  • Jahandar Shah (1712-13) He ascended the throne with the help of Zulfikar Khan; abolished Jizya.
  • Farrukhsiyar (1713-19) He lacked the ability and knowledge to rule independently. His reign saw the emergence of the Sayyid Brothers.
  • Muhammad Shah (1719-48) Nadir Shah invaded India and took away Peacock throne and Kohinoor diamond.
  • Ahmed Shah (1748-54) Ahmed Shah Abdali (General of Nadir Shah) marched towards Delhi and the Mughals ceded Punjab and Multan.
  • Alamgir (1754-59) Ahmed Shah occupied Delhi. Later, Delhi was plundered by Marathas.
  • Shah Alam II (1759-1806) could not enter Delhi for 12 years.
  • Akbar II (1806-37) pensioner of East India Company. He gave the title ‘Raja’ to Ram Mohan Roy.
  • Bahadur Shah II (1837-57) Last Mughal Emperor who was made premier during the 1857 Revolt.

Literature of Mughal Period

Author Work
Babur Tuzuk-i-Babari
Abul Fazal Ain-i-Akbari, Akbarnamah
Jahangir Tuzuk-i-Jahangir
Hamid Lahori Padshahnama
Darashikoh Majma-ul-Bahrain
Mirza Md Qasim Alamgirnama

MARATHAS (AD 1674-1818)

Shivaji (AD 1627-80)

  • Born at Shivner to Shahji Bhonsle and Jijabai. His religious teacher was Samarth Ramdas and guardian was Dadaji Kondadev.
  • Treaty of Purandar (AD 1665) between Shivaji and Mughals.
  • Coronation at Raigarh (AD 1674) and assumed the title of Haindava Dharmadharak (Protector of Hinduism).
  • Ashtapradhan (eight ministers) helped in administration. These were PeshwasSar-i-Naubat (Military), Mazumdar or Amatya (Accounts); Waqenavis  (Intelligence); Surunavis  (Corres-pondence); Dabir or Sumanta (Ceremonies); Nyayadhish (Justice); and Panditrao (Charity).
  • Successors of Shivaji were Shambhaji, Rajaram and Shahu (fought at Battle of Khed in AD 1708).

Peshwas (AD 1719-18)

  • Balaji Vishwanath was the first Peshwas, who concluded an agreement with the Sayyid Brothers (the king makers in history) by which Mughal emperor Farukh Siyyar recognised Shahu as the king of Swarajya.
  • Baji Rao considered as the “greatest exponent of guerilla tactics after Shivaji”; Maratha power reached its zenith and system of confederacy began; defeated Siddis of Janjira; Conquest of Bassein and Salsette from Portuguese.
  • Balaji Baji Rao known as Nana Sahib; Third Battle of Panipat (AD 1761) between Marathas and Ahmed Shah Abdali gave a big jolt to the Maratha empire.


  • Guru Nanak Ji (1469-39) founded Sikh religion.
  • Guru Angad (1539-52) invented Gurmukhi.
  • Guru Amardas (1552-74) struggled against sati system, and purdah system and established 22 Gadiyans to propagate religion.
  • Guru Ramdas (1574-81) founded Amritsar in 1577. Akbar granted the land.
  • Guru Arjan Dev (1581-1606) founded Swarn Mandir (Golden Temple) and composed Adi Granth later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib.
  • Guru Hargobind Singh (1606-44) established Akal Takht, and fortified Amritsar.
  • Guru Har Rai (1644-61) provided care to Dara Shikoh.
  • Guru Harkishan (1661-64).
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur (1664-75).
  • Guru Gobind Singh (1675-1708) was the last Guru who founded the Khalsa. After him Sikh guruship ended.